It is not possible in a book of ordinary length, to go into all of the details essential to successful irrigation construction and operation. The broader and more. This book on "Irrigation Engineering" by. Prof. V. B. Priyani furnishes in concise, clearly intelligible language, illustrated by appropriate drawings or sket-. PDF | A plot of land growing a certain crop or a combination of crops has to be supplied with water from time to time. Primarily, the plot or field is.
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Irrigation Engineering. Lecture Notes. Subject: Lining of Irrigation Channels. Lecturer: Imad Most of the irrigation channels in Iraq are earthen channels. The . that of the book “Irrigation Engineering”, significant additions and revisions have been Recent developments in Hydraulic Engineering related to Irrigation and. Download Irrigation Engineering And Hydraulic Structures By Santosh Kumar Garg – The book is designed to cover the major ﬁelds of agricultural and.
Sides of the aqueduct made of concrete or masonry. Its earthen section of the canal is discontinued and canal water is carried in masonry or concrete trough, canal is generally flumed in this section. In view of growing population, urbanization and increased industrialization, the situation is likely to get worse.
In addition, increasing pollution and saltwater intrusion threaten the country's water resources. In urban areas, most water is supplied from groundwater except for the cities of Karachi, Hyderabad and a part of Islamabad, where mainly surface water is used.
In most rural areas, groundwater is used. In rural areas with saline groundwater, irrigation canals serve as the main source of domestic water. This shows the significance of agriculture in the country.
Pakistan still has the world's largest Three reservoirs 2. More than , watercourses comprise the distribution network that takes water directly to the farms. The system commands a land area of Design Discharge cusecs No. Flood level from floor ft Total Design Withdrawals for Canal cusecs Chashma 1,, 52 37 26, Guddu 1,, 64 26 - Jinnah , 42 28 7, Kotri , 44 Usually water requirement for crop is expressed in water depth per unit area. This is based on both the temperature range of your climate and the amount of precipitation.
Take a close look at the area in which you are going to plant your garden.
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If the ground tends to be very moist, choose plants that can tolerate constantly wet soil, and even standing water. If you live in an area that suffers from frequent droughts, however, select plants that can tolerate going long periods without water, especially in light of the frequent watering restrictions imposed on such areas. If you are lucky enough to live in an area that has a balanced climate, you have a wider range of choices for your plants.
Low Water Requirement Plants Plants that require low levels of water are often called drought tolerant. Drought-tolerant plants can thrive in hot, dry conditions with very little water. They include both perennials and annuals. Most drought-tolerant plants only have to be hand-watered when they are planted and while they are establishing themselves. After that, they can be left to the natural cycle of the elements. Popular All citrus trees are also drought tolerant. Many homeowners in areas prone to drought, such as parts of the southern United States, use shrubs and ground covering vines as part of their landscaping.
These include Texas sage, orange jasmine and Chinese fountain grass. There are not many perennial drought-tolerant plants, but amaryllis is one that is very popular, along with the African iris.
Popular drought-tolerant annuals include marigold, cosmos and the Dahlberg daisy. Mid-Level Water Requirement Crops Most plants land in this range when it comes to water requirements.
These plants do not need to be watered every day, but they need to be watered when the soil has been dry for over a week or two. Sometimes these plants are classified as plants lying in the "occasional water zone".
These include popular plants such as geraniums, most roses, wisteria, clematis and other vine plants, sunflowers, spring flowering bulbs, and most flowering perennial shrubs. Note that flowering annuals planted in containers will need watering at least once or twice a week, while annuals planted in the ground will need watering less often. High Water Requirement Plants Some plants require large amounts of water. These plants typically grow in marshy areas or bogs, or along the banks of rivers, streams and lakes.
The soil for these plants should always be kept moist. Standing water is not a concern for these plants, so you don't have to worry about root rot. Perennials are especially good for wet areas because they don't have to be replanted year after year, which can be difficult in marshy areas. Popular perennials for wet soil include iris plants, cannas, bee balms, ferns, and bog salvia.
Aquatic mint is a pleasant ground cover that likes wet soil. The red osier dogwood does very well in wet conditions. Most annual flowering plants also do well in constantly moist soil. The amount of water taken by crops vary considerably. What crops use more water and which ones less Crop Water Requirement mm Rice Wheat Sorghum Maize Sugarcane Groundnut Cotton Soybean Tobacco Tomato Potato Onion Chillies Sunflower Castor Bean Cabbage Pea Banana Citrus Pineapple Gingelly Ragi Grape Irrigation Crop Water Requirement This case study shows how to calculate the total water requirement for a command area irrigation blocks under various crops, soil textures and conveyance loss conditions.
In order to evaluate the required irrigation gift for the entire command area a simple water balance has to be set-up. The total water demand for each irrigation block and the crops in each block are calculated by summing the following components: Evaluation of Percolation loss I The command area is divided in irrigation blocks. First, these irrigation blocks are crossed with the soil texture map to determine the area of each soil texture class in each block.
Percolation losses differ per soil texture class so a table with the following percolation data is created: The amount of water loss for each soil texture class per block is calculated with a tabcalc statement.
In order to get the total percolation loss per block the results of the previous operation are aggregated. Evaluation of Conveyance loss S Conveyance losses are calculated in about the same way as the percolation losses. First, the map with the irrigation blocks is crossedwith the channel distribution map. The conveyance loss per meter channel length differs per channel type and is 0. A new table indicating water loss per channel type is created and joined to the cross table.
The amount of water loss for each type of channel per block is calculated with a simple tabcalc formula. Finally the results are aggregated to evaluate the total conveyance loss per irrigation block. Evaluation of maximum evapo-transpiration ETm Crop water requirements are normally expressed by the rate of evapotranspiration ET. The evaporative demand can be expressed as the reference crop evapotranspiration ETo which predicts the effect of climate on the level of crop evapotranspiration.
Empirically-determined crop coefficients kc can be used to relate ETo to maximum crop evapotranspiration ETm when water supply fully meets the water requirement of the crop. The value of kc varies with crop and development stage.
The kc values for each crop and development stage are available in a table. Maximum evapotranspiration is calculated in this case study by crossing the irrigation block map with the map that shows the different crop types in the command area, joining the cross table with the kc table and by applying the maximum evapotranspiration formula with a tabcalc statement.
The total amount of water requirement in harvest period for each block is reclassified in irrigation classes using the following table: Upper boundary Irrigation class 1 2 3 4 5 6 Finally, you will create a script to automate the calculation procedure.
With the script, you can easily calculate the water requirements for other growing stages. Increase in Crop Yield 2. Protection from famine 3. Cultivation of superior crops 4. Elimination of mixed cropping: Economic development 6. Hydro power generation 7.
Domestic and industrial water supply: The data set is made up of temperature time series, obtained from gauging stations. The potential evapotranspiration estimated for each station using the above-mentioned methods is spatially integrated, in order to obtain the areal potential evapo-transpiration.
The methods adopted for the spatial integration of the point estimates are the Kriging method, the method of Inverse Distance Weighting, the Spline method and the Thiessen method, using applications in a Geographic Information System GIS with a spatial resolution of xm2. Tmin T?
Pressurized distribution 2. Gravity flow distribution 3. Drainage flow distribution. Pressurized Distribution The pressurized systems include sprinkler, trickle, and the array of similar systems in which water is conveyed to and distributed over the farmland through pressurized pipe networks. There are many individual system configurations identified by unique features centre-pivot sprinkler systems. Gravity Flow Irrigation System Gravity flow systems convey and distribute water at the field level by a free surface, overland flow regime.
These surface irrigation methods are also subdivided according to configuration and operational characteristics. Control of drainage flow irrigation System Irrigation by control of the drainage system, sub-irrigation, is not common but is interesting conceptually.
Relatively large volumes of applied irrigation water percolate through the root zone and become a drainage or groundwater flow.
By controlling the flow at critical points, it is possible to raise the level of the groundwater to within reach of the crop roots. These individual irrigation systems have a variety of advantages and particular applications. Irrigation systems are often designed to maximize efficiencies and minimize labour and capital requirements. The most effective management practices are dependent on the type of irrigation system and its design.
For example, management can be influenced by the use of automation, the control of or the capture and reuse of runoff, field soil and topographical variations and the existence and location of flow measurement and water control structures. Questions that are common to all irrigation systems are when to irrigate, how much to apply, and can the efficiency be improved.
A large number of considerations must be taken into account in the selection of an irrigation system. These will vary from location to location, crop to crop, year to year, and farmer to farmer. Compatibility of the irrigation systems: The irrigation system for a field or a farm must be compatible with the other existing farm operations, such as land preparation, cultivation, and harvest.
Gravity irrigation methods are less expensive, but requires more skill and experience to achieve re-scannable efficiency. This method also requires that the land to be irrigated should have a flatter slope, other wise the cost of land leveling and preparation at times be come very high. Gravity irrigation method. Includes furrow, boarder, basin, wild- flooding and corrugation. Furrow irrigation In this method of surface irrigation, water is applied to the field by furrow which are small canals having a continuous our nearly uniform slope in the direction of irrigation.
Water flowing in the furrow into the soil spreads laterally to irrigate the area between furrows. The rate of lateral spread of water in the soil depends on soil type. For a given time, water will infiltrate more vertically and less laterally in relatively sandy soils than in clay soil.
When field sloped is too steep to align the furrows down the slope, control furrows which run along curved routed may be used. Spacing of furrows depends on the crop type and the type of machinery used for cultivation and planting. Length of furrows depends largely on permeability of the soil, the available labor and skill, and experiences of the irrigation.
Flow rates are related to the infiltration to the rate of the soil. Longitudinal slope of furrow depends up on the soil type, especially its errodability and the velocity of flow. Slope may be related to discharge as follows. Boarder - strip Irrigation The farms are divided into number of strips of 5 to 20 meters wide and to meters long.
Parallel earth bunds or levees are provided in order to guide the advancing sheet of water. Recommended safe limits of longitudinal slope also depends on the soil texture: Sandy loam to sandy soils 0. Basin irrigation Large stream of water is applied to almost level and smaller unit of fields which are surrounded by levees or bunds.
The applied water is retained in the basin until it filtrates. Soil type, stream size and irrigation depth are the important factors in determining the basin area. Wild flooding Water is applied all over the field especially, before plowing for soil that can't be plowed when dry.
Under closed conduit- there are two types of irrigation 1. Sprinkler 2. Drip irrigation Sprinkler irrigation: It is mostly used for young growth, to humid the atmosphere, for soil compaction specially for sandy loam soils before planting, for land having up and down slope and used to wash out plant leaves especially in dusty area.
Sprinkler irrigation offers a means of irrigating areas which are so irregular that they prevent use of any surface irrigation methods.
By using a low supply rate, deep percolation or surface runoff and erosion can be minimized. Offsetting these advantages is the relatively high cost of the sprinkling equipment and the permanent installations necessary to supply water to the sprinkler lines. Very low delivery rates may also result in fairly high evaporation from the spray and the wetted vegetation.
Drip irrigation This is used especially where there is shortage of water and salt problem. The drip method of irrigation, also called trickle irrigation.
The method is one of the most recent developments in irrigation. It involves slow and frequent application of water to the plant root zone and enables the application of water and fertilizer at optimum rates to the root system. It minimizes the loss of water by deep percolation below the root zone or by evaporation from the soil surface.
Drip irrigation is not only economical in water use but also gives higher yields with poor quality water. Choice and Selection of Irrigation Methods Following are some reasons and factors which affect the selection of an irrigation system for a specific area: Compatibility of the irrigation system 2. Topographical characteristics of area 3. Economics and cost of the irrigation method 4. Soils Water supply 6. Crops to be irrigated 7. Social influences on the selection of irrigation method 8.
External influences 1. Compatibility of the irrigation system The irrigation system for a field or a farm must be compatible with the other existing farm operations, such as land preparation, cultivation, and harvest. The irrigation systems must not interfere with these operations and may need to be portable or function primarily outside the crop boundaries i.
Smaller equipment or animal-powered cultivating equipment is more suitable for small fields and more permanent irrigation facilities. Topographical characteristics of area Topography is a major factor affecting irrigation, particularly surface irrigation. Of general concern are the location and elevation of the water supply relative to the field boundaries, the area and configuration of the fields, and access by roads, utility lines gas, electricity, water, etc. Field slope and its uniformity are two of the most important topographical factors.
Surface systems, for instance, require uniform grades in the percent range. Restrictions on irrigation system selection due to topography include: Economics and cost of the irrigation method The type of irrigation system selected is an important economic decision.
Some types of pressurized systems have high capital and operating costs but may utilize minimal labour and conserve water. Their use tends toward high value cropping patterns. Other systems are relatively less expensive to construct and operate but have high labour requirements. Some systems are limited by the type of soil or the topography found on a field. The costs of maintenance and expected life of the rehabilitation along with an array of annual costs like energy, water, depreciation, land preparation, maintenance, labour and taxes should be included in the selection of an irrigation system.
Main costs include: Soils The soil's moisture-holding capacity, intake rate and depth are the principal criteria affecting the type of system selected. Sandy soils typically have high intake rates and low soil moisture storage capacities and may require an entirely different irrigation strategy than the deep clay soil with low infiltration rates but high moisture-storage capacities. Sandy soil requires more frequent, smaller applications of water whereas clay soils can be irrigated less frequently and to a larger depth.
Other important soil properties influence the type of irrigation system to use. The physical, biological and chemical interactions of soil and water influence the hydraulic characteristics and filth. The mix of silt in a soil influences crusting and erodibility and should be considered in each design.
The soil influences crusting and erodibility and should be considered The distribution of soils may vary widely over a field and may be an important limitation on some methods of applying irrigation water. The soil type usually defines: Water supply The quality and quantity of the source of water can have a significant impact on the irrigation practices.
Crop water demands are continuous during the growing season.
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The soil moisture reservoir transforms this continuous demand into a periodic one which the irrigation system can service. A water supply with a relatively small discharge is best utilized in an irrigation system which incorporates frequent applications. The depths applied per irrigation would tend to be smaller under these systems than under systems having a large discharge which is available less frequently. The quality of water affects decisions similarly.
Salinity is generally the most significant problem but other elements like boron or selenium can be important. A poor quality water supply must be utilized more frequently and in larger amounts than one of good quality. Crops to be irrigated The yields of many crops may be as much affected by how water is applied as the quantity delivered. Irrigation systems create different environmental conditions such as humidity, temperature, and soil aeration. They affect the plant differently by wetting different parts of the plant thereby introducing various undesirable consequences like leaf burn, fruit spotting and deformation, crown rot, etc.
Rice, on the other hand, thrives under ponded conditions. Some crops have high economic value and allow the application of more capital-intensive practices, these are called "cash crops" or Cash crop farming. Deep-rooted crops are more amenable to low-frequency, high-application rate systems than shallow-rooted crops. Cash Crop Water Requirement Crop characteristics that influence the choice of irrigation system are: Social influences on the selection of irrigation method Beyond the confines of the individual field, irrigation is a community enterprise.
Individuals, groups of individuals, and often the state must join together to construct, operate and maintain the irrigation system as a whole. Within a typical irrigation system there are three levels of community organization.
There is the individual or small informal group of individuals participating in the system at the field and tertiary level of conveyance and distribution. There are the farmer collectives which form in structures as simple as informal organizations or as complex as irrigation districts. These assume, in addition to operation and maintenance, responsibility for allocation and conflict resolution.
A simple method to design irrigation rate and duration and improve water use efficiency
And then there is the state organization responsible for the water distribution and use at the project level. Irrigation system designers should be aware that perhaps the most important goal of the irrigation community at all levels is the assurance of equity among its members.
Thus the operation, if not always the structure, of the irrigation system will tend to mirror the community view of sharing and allocation. Irrigation often means a technological intervention in the agricultural system even if irrigation has been practiced locally for generations.
New technologies mean new operation and maintenance practices. If the community is not sufficiently adaptable to change, some irrigation systems will not succeed. External influences Conditions outside the sphere of agriculture affect and even dictate the type of system selected.
For example, national policies regarding foreign exchange, strengthening specific sectors of the local economy, or sufficiency in particular industries may lead to specific irrigation systems being utilized.
Key components in the manufacture or importation of system elements may not be available or cannot be efficiently serviced. Since many irrigation projects are financed by outside donors and lenders, specific system configurations may be precluded because of international policies and attitudes. Strainer type 2. Cavity type 3. Slotted type Design of strainer or well screen for Tube Wells In design, find its length, slot size, opening area, diameter and material requirements a.
Corrosion resistant b. Strong enough to prevent collapse c. Prevent excessive movement of sand into well d. Minimum resistance to flow of water into the well Materials used for Tube Well Construction 1.
Zinc free brass Stainless steel 3. Low carbon steel 4. Surface irrigation is the introduction and distribution of water in a field by the gravity flow of water over the soil surface.
The soil acts as the growing medium in which water is stored and the conveyance medium over which water flows as it spreads and infiltrates. Common surface irrigation systems used are rill irrigation, furrow or border irrigation. The term 'surface irrigation' refers to a broad class of irrigation methods in which water is distributed over the field by overland flow.
A flow is introduced at one edge of the field and covers the field gradually. The rate of coverage advancement is dependent on: Secondary factors include The practice of surface irrigation is thousands of years old. The first water supplies were developed from stream or river flows onto the adjacent flood plain through simple check-dams and a canal to distribute water to various locations.
The low-lying soils served by these diversions were typically high in clay and silt content alluvium and tended to be most fertile. With the advent of modern equipment for moving earth and pumping water, surface irrigation systems were extended to upland areas and lands quite separate from the flood plain of local rivers and streams.
Advantages of Surface Irrigation Methods Surface irrigation offers a number of important advantages at both the farm and project level. The gravity flow system is a highly flexible, relatively easily-managed method of irrigation.
Because it is so widely utilized, local irrigators generally have at least minimal understanding of how to operate and maintain the system. In addition, surface systems are often more acceptable to agriculturalists who appreciate the effects of water shortage on crop yields since it appears easier to apply the depths required to refill the root zone.
The second advantage of surface irrigation is that these systems can be developed at the farm level with minimal capital investment. The control and regulation structures are simple, durable and easily constructed with inexpensive and readily-available materials like wood, concrete, brick and mortar, etc.
Further, the essential structural elements are located at the edges of the fields which facilitates operation and maintenance activities. Energy requirements for surface irrigation systems come from gravity.
This is a significant advantage in today's economy. They are less affected by climatic and water quality characteristics. Salinity is less of a problem under surface irrigation than either of these pressurized systems. Surface systems are better able to utilize water supplies that are available less frequently, more uncertain, and more variable in rate and duration.
Disadvantages of Surface Irrigation Methods There is one disadvantage of surface irrigation that confronts every designer and irrigator. The soil which must be used to convey the water over the field has properties that are highly varied both spatially and temporally. They become almost undefinable except immediately preceding the watering or during it. This creates an engineering problem in which at least two of the primary design variables, discharge and time of application, must be estimated not only at the field layout stage but also judged by the irrigator prior to the initiation of every surface irrigation event.
Thus while it is possible for the new generation of surface irrigation methods to be attractive alternatives Although they need not be, surface irrigation systems are typically less efficient in applying water than either sprinkler or trickle systems. Many are situated on lower lands with heavier soils and, therefore, tend to be more affected by water logging and soil salinity if adequate drainage is not provided. The need to use the field surface as a conveyance and distribution facility requires that fields be well graded if possible.
Land levelling costs can be high so the surface irrigation practice tends to be limited to land already having small, even slopes.
Surface systems tend to be labour-intensive. This labour need not be overly skilled. But to achieve high efficiencies the irrigation practices imposed by the irrigator must be carefully implemented.
The progress of the water over the field must be monitored in larger fields and good judgement is required to terminate the inflow at the appropriate time.
A consequence of poor judgement or design is poor efficiency. One sometimes important disadvantage of surface irrigation methods is the difficulty in applying light, frequent irrigation early and late in the growing season of several crops. For example, in heavy calcareous soils where crust formation after the first irrigation and prior to the germination of crops, a light irrigation to soften the crust would improve yields substantially.
Under surface irrigation systems this may be unfeasible or impractical as either the supply to the field is not readily available or the minimum depths applied would be too great.
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April Chapter-2 RW-6 R These plants typically grow in marshy areas or bogs, or along the banks of rivers, streams and lakes. Have a great day!
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