Цркве (са Е. Зечевић с. ). Сард, Дриваст, Пречиста Богородица Крајинска (85), Свач, Улцињ (87), Бар (88), Стари Бар, Будва (89), Иловица. Srpsko pomorje od 7. do stoleća book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. Pomorje (Serbo-Croatian: Поморје / Pomorje) or Primorje (Serbo-Croatian: Приморје / Primorje), also known as Seaside and Littoral, is a term used in historical.
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I , Budapest, , pp.
Daskalov, H. Jorga, N. I, cap IV, pp 7 In the second half of 14th century, monk Isaiah said that Ugljesha has risen Serbian and Greek army Srbskija i Grchskiija voiska and his brother Vukashin, and with that army they confronted the invading Turks. Mikloshich, F. Bogdan, J. Kachanovski, V. That was descriped by Vladislav Gramatik, in , who also mentioned Serbian soldiers Srbskiie voje in the Marica battle.
Horvat, K. Nissa 2. Vidina by the Turks called Kiratow 3. Scopi, by Ptolemy called Scupi. Heylin, P. Theiner, A. Demetrius in Kichevo. Djambazovski, K. Gerlach, S. Fermendzhin, E. He is the same person from reference above.
Stefan Kratovian In Cratovo d. Stefano da Cratovo. The real purpose of the procession of images is actually nothing less than to justify emotional proximity and to simultaneously suspend critical distance.
Tvrtko I of Bosnia
The Hungarian foreign policy of the s thereby entered into a direct relationship with the goals of Nazi politics without any particular explanation or justification. Corresponding parallel images, thus, integrate contemporary Hungarian politics into the context of German imperial expansion without any profound historical investigation.
Images edited next to each other in these Hungarian military propaganda films summon a sense of affinity and elicit particular historical associations. The similarity of spectacle connects the historical events, persons and data depicted by these pictures, while the temporal succession of moving images transforms them into a narrative.
The spectacle of this historical continuity features the memorial exhibition opened on the 40th anniversary of the Hungarian Soviet Republic, which was organized by the Trade Union of Railway Workers. The workers wanted to install a genuine historical exhibition representing the past by means of original documents.
According to this intention, clearly visible on preserved photographs, some boards did not simply show copies of contemporary historical sources, but the actual documents themselves stuck to the boards in their physical entirety.
This direct encounter with the traces of the past, however, concealed the fact that, rather than being an accurate descriptive explanation, the sequence of the display defined the nature of the relationship among these historical documents.
The exposition made its objects available for the public in a montage-like arrangement Fig.
Documents of the counterrevolution following the fall of the Hungarian Soviet Republic can be seen on a background made of graphical works of art. This background is dominated by a gallows tree and the figures of a gendarme and a village notary grasping a whip.
( Based upon the Latin text of Schoell and Kroll's edition ).
These iconic images attempt to establish the existence of a deeper, profound historical continuity, though remains barely explicated.
The portrait of Hitler situated above the series of images, in turn, appears to reveal the essence of the power dominating the events in reality. A Look at the Evidence Apparently, historical representations of the Hungarian Soviet Republic that followed the party line put very little emphasis on the establishment of critical relationships between historical evidence and narrative claims regarding the past.
Documentary films commissioned by the authorities in general were not interested in creating particular indexical relationships with reality, where images mediate the authentic sense of being there and of direct experience by means of accurate references to the represented actions and events. Historians ordinarily are expected to go to the archives, dig up sources and reveal their findings, together with the process of investigation, to the public. Hungarian communist-party historians ignored the fact that footnotes does not simply claim that the evidence exists, but also prove that the historian was there, meeting and working with the records, and has drawn conclusions from the direct experience with them.
These works on had no concern for turning footnotes into tools for demonstrating the outcomes of obligatory critical work and testifying to the ability of the historian. Historians are inherently dependent on the contingent collection of archives and the uncertainty of evidence. Historical authenticity rests on the certainty of uncertainty: an accurate description of inaccuracy and absences of evidence and a sincere declaration of the reasons why a particular interpretation is preferred.
The intention of demonstrating evidence in these historical representations was not to reflect uncertainty by answering questions: on the contrary, the use of historical records was aimed at illustration of the given certainty of abstract prescribed statements on the past. In fact, the manipulation of historical authenticity is detectable behind the appearance of authentic historical representation: the evocation of the past in works which call themselves historical documentaries aims to create effects similar to those in historical costume dramas.
Obviously, the majority of historical scenes represented by moving images could not be produced according to original documents. Historical feature film, however, is a particular genre: it represents the events of the past overwhelmingly via individual fates and trajectories.
Individual deeds stand in the focus of historical processes, while social conflicts and ruptures are conceived through individual mental and emotional reactions.
The ability of historical feature films is to encourage emotional identification with abstract, positively depicted forces and values symbolized by the events of the past by means of establishing particular relationships to individual characters. It is as if the construction of narratives about the past, namely historical interpretation, was the result of an imagination independent of reading the sources.
Apparently, historians willing to meet the official expectations of the party considered historical research to be the value- and interpretation-free activity of selecting and collecting facts from an unprocessed historical field that had nothing to do with genuine historical understanding. As if evidence could automatically establish, by the mere virtue of its existence, a relationship with reality. The Marxist philosopher expects historical novels to demonstrate how society developed into its contemporary form and which historical processes determined its contemporary state: Without a felt relationship to the present, a portrayal of history is impossible.
But this relationship, in the case of really great historical art, does not consist in alluding to contemporary events, but in bringing the past to life as the prehistory of the present, in giving poetic life to those historical, social and human forces which, in the course of a long evolution, have made our present-day life what it is and as we experience it.
Numerous components of the historical development remained hidden for contemporaries, which, nonetheless, became recognizable for succeeding observers. The Marxist philosopher is arguing that since the genuine essence of historical reality is made of those processes which lead towards the present, this reality becomes accessible through an adequate assessment of the present.
The appropriate understanding of the historical process is dependent on the correct moral-political commitment and cultural-ideological consciousness of the observer-interpreter of the past.
The purpose of authentic historical representation, thus, is to document the process of historical necessity as understood retrospectively: Measured against this authentic reproduction of the real components of historical necessity, it matters little whether individual details, individual facts are historically correct or not. As its philosophy claims, the hidden, but real essence and meaning of History or Reality reveals itself in its typical manifestations.
However, to recognize and understand the typical, one must practice a certain form of self-discipline: one must learn not to trust his or her eyes, since the eyes, according to socialist realist criticism, reflect only objects as they visibly appear, but tell little about the truly important factors of human consciousness and cognition, which is accessible only by thought.
For the philosophy of socialist realism, the visible observable qualities of objects—facts—are only part of the truth, more precisely, these are raw material which genuine representation must learn to use and even use creatively in order to discern the inessential and the typical.
But how to establish what is important and what is not? The typical, according to the theory of socialist realism, is not marked by its regular appearance or majority. The typical is rather the crucial process which is just emerging to determine the further course and meaning of History.
Therefore, reality is to be recognized not by considering the visible and the observable, but by contemplating the yet invisible and hidden. A certain element of prediction and fortune-telling is involved in this process, which could make faithful representation impossible if there was no guiding light in seeing the future. If it is the political center, the party that shapes the future, launches the processes to emerge and defines what the typical is, then true representation must understand, depict and follow political visions and objectives.
The artificial division of the interpretation of sources and the creative narrative process had convinced them that the validity and credibility of historical interpretation was bound to coherent narratives embedded in a cultural context of narrative tradition.
Communist authorities shaping the politics of history tended to believe that the credibility of historical representations was grounded if they acquired meaning as narratives.
The validity of historical interpretation was well-founded if it was related to a culturally accessible set of narratives. They expected readers to perceive the correspondence between narrative forms and genres, whereas the form of the particular historical account was to remind them of those kinds of story structures which generally were already available in society.
Instead of accurate references to particular individual phenomena, these works referred to general moral and cultural positions in order to draw political lessons and provide judgment. As a consequence of this use of evidence to invoke moral judgment, political commitment or ideological notions, the abstract narrative of the Hungarian Soviet Republic was conceived as it really was: a means to cover and conceal the fact that the communist fighters of had directly or indirectly contributed to the suffering of those people who were opponents or obstructions to their program of political and social transformation.
The mode of uploading evidence into prefigured narrative constructs made the representations of the Hungarian Soviet Republic appear as they really were: fictions exploiting original documents to illustrate the abstract fictive concept of the counterrevolution. Secretariat M-KS Registry no.
The history of Scanderbeg
Collection of military propaganda films of the Museum of Military History. HL HL — Bibliography Ankersmit, Frank R. Berkeley: University of California Press, Barron, Samuel H.
Heer, eds. Budapest: Kossuth, Browning, Christopher R. Burke, Peter. London: Reaktion Books, Carr, David.
Hamburg: Rowohlt Tb. Daston, Lorraine, and Peter Galison. Davis, Natalie Zemon. Slaves on Screen, Film and Historical Vision. Didi-Huberman, Georges. Eckert, Rainer, and Bernd Faulenbach, eds. Halbherziger Revisionismus: Zum Postkommunistischen Geschichtsbild.
Gallagher, Matthew P. Westport: Greenwood Press, Geimer, Peter. Ginzburg, Carlo. History, Rhetoric and Proof. New York: Verso, A magyar Golgota [The Hungarian Golgotha]. Grafton, Anthony. Grindon, Leger. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, Groys, Boris. Princeton: Princeton University Press, Heer, Nancy Whittier.
Politics and History in the Soviet Union. Die Sowjetische Geschichtswissenschaft bis Studien zur Methodologie und Organisationsgeschichte. Munich: Sagner, Munich: Oldenbourg, Jarausch, Konrad, and Martin Sabrow, eds. Jay, Martin.
Keep, John, ed. Contemporary History in the Soviet Mirror. London: George Allen and Unwin, Koselleck, Reinhart.
Lorenz, Chris. Lukacs, Georg. The Historical Novel. Boston: Beacon Press, Marchand, Suzanne, and Elizabeth Lunbeck, eds. Mink, Louis O. Canary and Henry Kozicki, — Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, The Effects of World War I. Budapest: Szikra, Monaco, James.
Nagy-Talavera, Nicholas. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, Nichols, Bill. Representing Reality: Issues and Concepts in Documentary. Bloomington—Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, Retroactive Justice: Prehistory of Post-Communism.
Stanford: Stanford University Press, Ricoeur, Paul. Cambridge—Paris: Cambridge University Press, Time and Narrative. Chicago—London: University of Chicago Press, — Rosenstone, Robert A.A notable exception was Klis , which supported the rebellious nobleman John of Palisna. The visual relationship of the soldier turning to Lenin and the Bolshevik leader looking down on the officer evokes the image of the believer asking for help from the source of knowledge. As if evidence could automatically establish, by the mere virtue of its existence, a relationship with reality.
These frames provide recognizably distinct spectacles to the visual settings of the overall story: whereas the scenes showing the hesitation of the captain are based on fluid shots typical of the s and a relatively low-key acting performance, the images evoking the past consist of fragmented shots which bring the archaic impressions and expressive acting style to the foreground.
A few people are watching the victim, while others are talking to each other or paying attention to something outside the frame. This means that the culture that built these megalithic structures came from Central Europe and reached the British Isles via south Baltic, and specifically Elbe region, Pomerania, Pomorje, the land of Fomori.